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【转载】十年砍柴:四载系一生

2009年08月28日 1条评论

【按】我们更应该感到自豪和值得学习的是十年砍柴一贯的独立思考,崇尚自由,呼吁良知的品性和精神。十年砍柴的博客:http://blog.ifeng.com/1218514.html 十年看柴的Twitter: http://twitter.com/shiniankanchai (需翻墙)http://twitzap.com/#user:shiniankanchai (暂时不需翻墙)。

兰州的气质是悲凉、内敛而静穆的,她处于山河之间,静静地阅过千年的兴亡盛衰。商贾们涉险求利、行走丝路上的驼铃,大将们万里拓边、扬汉唐声威的旗帜以及春闺里的幽梦、无定河边的白骨,在兰州沧桑的眼神里,都化成黄河边那些个歌子。她不张扬,不媚俗,她甘于寂寞,千年来,渗透到骨子里的悲凉修炼成兰州这份宠辱不惊的静穆。

四载系一生

十年砍柴

《光明日报》2009-08-27 10版

  十六年前的盛夏,金城兰州槐荫蔽日。兰山脚下的火车站台上,泪眼纷飞,充溢着离愁别绪。我透过车窗,望见南面山坡上,一棵棵还未成材的树木,那是我们兰州大学的绿化基地。四年里,我们每年都要从红山根爬上去,为树苗松土、除草。“林花谢了春红,太匆匆。”蓦地南唐后主这句词涌上心头。对那个即将寄身于兹的都城,我有许多的憧憬,也有一丝丝惶惑。我不知道,兰大四载的受教,能否使我在满城冠盖的京华生存下去,进而崭露头角。

  兰大对我一生,是不可替代的。这不仅因为我把最美妙的四年韶华留在那里,还因为我的气质、我的品格、我处事阅世的方式、我求学为文的门径,都和兰大这所大学,兰州这座城市有着莫大的关系。

  结识过许多兰大校友,或年长,或毕业未久,每个人的际遇不同,又来自天南海北,但因为在同一所大学里得授学业,身上或隐或现地有某些共同的特质。我总结这种特质是质朴、真诚、坚毅,不尚浮华,骨子里多多少少有一份孤傲、自重。以我有所交往的党国英、刘洪波和秦晖夫妇为例,为文为学,所注重的并不是那些被媒体爆炒的时髦概念,而是关于中国农村前景、中国社会转型等一些实实在在的问题。这样的视角,这样的路径,不能说与求学或执教于兰大的经历没有关系。兰大和兰大人,总把目光投向与我们这个民族生存关联度最高的区域,绝非偶然。且不说人文科学,即使是为兰大所特长的一些理工科专业,如化工,如核物理,如冰川学、如沙漠、草原的研究,这是一些需要大拙才可能有大巧的专业,耐得住寂寞、抗得住诱惑才能有所成就。

  陇原,从来就不是中华文明的核心地带,但陇原以及兰州在中华文明形成过程中却是不可替代的。北部的蒙古高原、西南的青藏高原、东部的黄土高原,在此处汇合,挤压、争雄中留下了通往西北狭长的河西走廊,这个走廊一直是中华民族的生命走廊。黄河在三大高原挤压的褶皱中,曲折蜿蜒,终于在兰州地区,突破重重关山,一泻而北上,从兰州开始,黄河流经的便是中华文明的中心地区。润泽河套,襟带秦晋,奔涌于中原,从齐鲁入海。说兰州是黄河所孕育的文明第一站,亦无不可。和中下游相比,此地或许环境过于恶劣,城池稍显窳陋,居民略输文采。但兰州以及陇原文化独特的气质,深深影响着兰州大学。大学,需要大师,需要大楼,但也需要有一种独特的气质。

  兰州的气质是悲凉、内敛而静穆的,她处于山河之间,静静地阅过千年的兴亡盛衰。商贾们涉险求利、行走丝路上的驼铃,大将们万里拓边、扬汉唐声威的旗帜以及春闺里的幽梦、无定河边的白骨,在兰州沧桑的眼神里,都化成黄河边那些个歌子。她不张扬,不媚俗,她甘于寂寞,千年来,渗透到骨子里的悲凉修炼成兰州这份宠辱不惊的静穆。

  我以为,在中国名校里面,兰大气质犹如兰州较之于其他大都市。

  2003年国庆长假,毕业十年的我和一些同学回到兰大,先在一草一木异常熟悉的盘旋路校区徜徉半日,然后跋涉到夏官营的新校区。随便问一位年轻的学妹,她告诉我校园后面那座光秃秃的土山叫“萃英山”。我想萃英二字,有集聚英才之意,更有赓续兰大传统承继血脉气质之意。1909年,先辈筚路蓝缕,创立这所学校于萃英门时,当时目之所及,不也是荒凉的黄河滩,以及黄河北岸更为荒凉的白塔山?

  如果要讲办学的硬件,即通俗所言的“大楼”,直到我求学的上世纪80年代末、90年代初,和兄弟院校相比,兰大实在是寒酸得很。教学楼仅有新、旧两座,中文系、新闻系蜗居在新文科楼七层;学生的住宿条件也不好,2、3号宿舍楼破落狭窄;连绿茵球场都没有,同学们只能在尘土飞扬中踢球;学生最主要的文娱生活是去简陋的礼堂看电影……这一切,并没有影响老师教真学问,学生求真学问。

  我想彼时支撑兰大师生施教求学的,是一种不服输的精神。在硬件不如人的条件下,做出成就,更足以傲视他人。我毕业离校时,兰大学生的美誉度甚高,教育界有“兰大学生基本功扎实”之说。我以为,这种“基本功”,其一是接受新生事物的能力,即学习的能力。我们刚毕业时,外语、计算机等“时髦”知识不如北京、上海等地高校毕业生,但在工作中这种缺陷能够较快地弥补。其二是对现实问题的关注度和认识水平。我们的同学中,大言炎炎者少,可看现实问题,能透过各种概念、名词缠绕的外表,直指其核心部位。其三是适应国情的能力,即吃得起苦,受得起委屈。我记得毕业时我和另两位校友一起分配到北京一家破败萧条的国有大企业,工作、生活条件很差,那时候的大学毕业生还有“天之骄子”的感觉,同去的毕业生中弥漫着一种失望、抱怨的情绪,甚至有人受不了这种压力而精神错乱。我们三位兰大毕业生对此种艰苦毫不在意,觉得社会本来就是如此,做好分内的事情就行。正是这种“只问耕耘,莫问收获”的态度,反而可能使努力有丰厚的回报。

  近十年来,中国高等教育的规模扩张迅速,表现为招生数成倍增长,高等教育经费也成倍增长。由于兰大所处的地理位置,她能得到的经费,无法和兄弟院校相比,更由于改革的深入,人才流动的加快,教学科研人才远走高飞亦成为常态。有人说,兰大衰落了,你看看排名就知道。我以为这是皮相之论,每年各种高校排名无非是种游戏,不必太在意。所谓“试玉要烧三日满,辨材须待七年期”,衡量一所大学的成就,关键还是看其培养的人才。兰大和兄弟院校地理环境的差距,不始于今日,抗战胜利时,不照样有后方学人买舟东归的潮流么?改革开放初期,兰州等地不也盛行孔雀东南飞么?今天再看,十年前、二十年前、三十年前,乃至五十年前,兰大毕业的学子和别人又有什么差距呢?只要兰大的精神气质尚在,自然会形成一种不断弥补缺陷不断培育新人的机制和文化。就如从萃英门,到盘旋路,再到夏官营,兰大每一个阶段,都能在荒凉中开垦出一片绿洲,给世人一种惊喜。兰大,在中国高等教育版图中不可替代的地位,亦将长期保持。

  今日萃英山上,树苗尚未成林,但再过几十年后,我相信一定树木葱茏,萃英山名副其实。只是,西北黄土坡上一棵树木的生长,其艰难的程度,远甚于植柳即活的江南。但越艰苦的地方成长的树木,其木质更坚硬细密,其生命力更顽强,如大漠胡杨。自然界如此,人类社会也如此。有幸在兰大度过四载年华的我,以此自许,我乐意我也相信,这四年所浸染的兰大气质,将深深地影响我这一生。

分类:随手摘录

在2009级本科生迎新典礼上的发言

2009年08月24日 3 条评论

尊敬的各位领导、老师,亲爱的同学们:

下午好!

在即将欢庆兰州大学百年华诞的喜庆日子里,我们又迎来了来自全国各地的优秀学子。在此,我代表兰州大学管理学院全体老师对你们表示热烈的欢迎和衷心的祝贺!你们的到来为兰州大学这所百年名校带来了新的活力与力量,也必将为她增添新的光辉与荣耀。

在这样一个场合,作为你们的老师和学长,我想给同学们一些建议和要求,与同学们共勉。

首先,调整好心态,尽快适应大学生活。大学对同学们是一个全新的环境,大家到了一个新的环境,总是会存在这样那样的不适应,现实的情况也肯定与自己的预期有差距,这个时候难免有些迷茫、失落,甚至失望。这些都是正常的。我想给大家的建议是,不要沉湎于这种情绪,要以积极乐观的心态面对和开始你的大学生活。或许,兰州大学不是你最想上的大学,管理学专业不是你最想学的专业,地处西北的兰州不是你最想来的城市,位于郊县的兰州大学榆中校区也没有你想象的大学校园那么美好,但是,这些都不是最重要的,重要的是你们要接受、认可并热爱兰州大学、管理学院和管理学专业,以积极的心态去做你们可以控制的事情,不抱怨、不徘徊、不等待,张开臂膀去感受、去体会、去享受你们美好的大学生活。你们应该自豪地对自己说:兰州大学,我来了,我努力,我成功。

其次,转变学习方式和方法,尽快适应大学的学习。在大学,老师不会像中学那样严格按照教材手把手地教大家学习,更多地是给同学们讲授重要的知识点、思路和方法,为大家指出进一步学习和研究的方向。这需要同学们具有更高的主动性和独立思考能力。但同时,与中学时一样,同学们需要认真地预习、听讲、做作业、复习,需要比中学时阅读更多的经典著作和课外材料,一句话,需要同学们像中学时一样勤奋甚至更加勤奋,在这方面没有捷径。学习方式和方法的转变是同学们在大学第一学期面临的最大问题和挑战,我相信,在学长和老师的帮助下,大家一定会克服困难,迅速适应大学的学习。

最后,希望大家在大学的一开始就能养成良好的学习和生活习惯。我希望大家养成的第一个习惯是管理好你的时间和生活。我们是管理学院的学生,首先要管理好我们自己,也就是管理学大师德鲁克所说的自我管理。自我管理的关键是时间管理。好的时间管理要求同学们要有制定明确目标的驱动力,确定事情轻重缓急的判断力,以及集中精力专心做好一件事的专注力。我们的院训是『学习管理就是学习成功』,什么是『成功』?我个人认为,成功就是竭尽所能地达到自己想要的目标的过程和结果。我相信,同学们只要有效地管理好自己的时间和生活,就一定能达到自己想要的目标,成为一个成功者。我希望大家养成的第二个习惯是自律。在中学,同学们都由家长和老师严格管理,许多事情都有明确的安排和约束。大学生活与中学生活不同,学校、学院和老师们给了大家充分的自由和空间。同学们突然面对这么多的自由,面对这么多需要自己做出决策和安排的事情,刚开始可能会不适应。这个时候,自律很重要。自律意味着承担责任,做出承诺,意味着拒绝诱惑,推迟享受,意味着忍受孤独,承受痛苦。树立远大的理想,强调对结果的关注,加强自身的修养,这些都是增强自律的有效途径。我希望大家养成的第三个习惯是勤奋。同学们可能觉得这个说法老生常谈,从小到大,父母和师长都谆谆教导我们要勤奋,到大学了老师还是要求我们勤奋。是的,勤奋很重要。勤奋意味着竭尽全力而不是心存侥幸,意味着认真踏实而不是投机取巧,意味着宁静淡泊而不是心浮气躁,意味着眼光长远而不是急功近利。

同学们,在人的一生中,大学四年是最重要的时光,也是最美好的记忆。在未来的四年中,当你百无聊赖无所事事的时候,当你迷茫困惑不知所措的时候,当你百思不得其解的时候,当你情绪低落需要倾诉的时候,当你开心快乐需要人分享的时候,请记得,我们——你们的老师和学长,也是你们的朋友——永远都在这里关心和支持着你们!祝同学们拥有自己完美的大学生活!

分类:感想杂记

Barbara B. Flynn: Writing publishable papers

2009年08月3日 1条评论

【说明】下午听Flynn教授的题为『Writing publishable papers』的报告,这是记录的PPT的内容。很受启发,但知易行难,重要的还是要learn by doing。

Top ten tips for publishing
10. Read the journal
9. Follow the instructions
8. Write clearly
7. Leverage your work
6. Divide and conquer
5. Learn by doing
4. Have a thick skin
3. Take the reviewer seriously
2. Make changes, not excuses
1. Be passionate

If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.

Characteristics of a research paper
–Research is needed and interesting
–Theory based for research
–Amenable to research methods
–Achievable in reasonable time
–Symmetry of potential outcomes
–Matches capabilities and interest
–Area for professional development

Contribution to knowledge
–New or improved evidence
–New or improved methodology
–New or improved analysis
–New or improved concepts or theories

Project generally NOT accepted as a research paper
–Literature surveys and descriptive complications
–Historical survey, unless accompanies by some analysis or testing of historical ideas
–Single-case descriptions, unless used in interpreting or developing an underlying structure, theory or concept
–Development projects that apply known knowledge

Topic analysis form
–Problem, hypothesis or question
–Important of the research
–Theory base for research
–Significant prior research
–Possible research approach or methodology
–Potential outcomes of research and important of each

Peer-reviewed journal
–Blind reviewed
    –Single-blind
    –Double-blind
–2-3 external reviewers
–Other journals use an editorial review process

About acceptance rates
–Method of calculating varies among journals
    –All manuscripts reviewed
    –manuscripts sent to reviewers
–Many editors do not maintain accurate records
–Influenced by the number of people in an area of specialization
–Influenced by authors’ knowledge about journal

Finding the right journal
–Many peer-reviewed journals
–Many levels of journals
–Cabell’s directory
–Conferences and conference journals
–References for published article
–Consider teaching journals

Writing for high probability of acceptance
–Check out editorial review board
–Check out published articles
–Follow instructions for authors
–Pass manuscripts by colleagues
–Check with editor on appropriateness of topic
–Become a reviewer

Tailoring your research
–Choose a topic that really matters to you
–Think about things you’ve done throughout academic career, as a student and faculty member
–Look for patterns in your best work
–Look at types of projects you’ve succeeded at and enjoyed
–Consider that type of writing and research by others you have enjoyed the most
    –Detailed vs.. general treatments
    –Inductive vs.. deductive
    –Use of examples
    –Terse vs.. expansive writing style
–Find a model for what you would like to do

Finding organizations and data to study
–Archival data sources
–Web transactions files
–Contacts with students who are working professionals
–Consulting contacts
–Incentives
–Student subjects

Sources of potential topics
–Current events
–Suggestions from past research
–Suggestions by authorities in the field
–Expressions of need for research by practitioners in a field
–Generally accepted, but unproved, suppositions
–Unproved or weakly proved assertions by an authority in the field
–Theories and concepts without supporting research
–Different approaches to testing important results

Reviewing standards and criteria
–Vary with perceived quality of the journal
–Ask about criteria — may be on website
–…

Research paper format
–Abstract
    –50-100 words, summarizes entire paper
–Introduction
    –3-5 paragraphs, grab reader’s attention
    –General terms
    –Introduction topics, don’t summarize
–Review of literature
    –Lays foundation from which other sections emerge
        –Rational for study
        –Statement of problem and hypotheses
        –Design of the research
    –Establishes perception that author is in full grasp of the subject
    –Connects specifics of the paper to larger themes – "big picture" in area
    –Establishes original contribution
    –Generates bibliography
    –Builds a compelling case for your research, broad to narrow
    –Persuasive justification for your subject should flow right out of a critical review of your literature
    –Focus on building justification, critiquing, synthesizing
    –Contributions to knowledge
        –Knowledge/theory extension
        –Fill a gap
        –Rectify an error or misunderstanding
        –Apply known theory in a new context
        –Develop or modify a methodology
        –Synthesize known theories
    –Implications of the study – how the findings might be used practically
–Statement of the problem and hypotheses
    –Problem: Key issues which continued examination of the topic, in light of related literature and research, repeatedly yields as compelling questions
    –Hypothesis: Procedures necessary to test out the truth probability of competing answers to the problem
–Methodological and statistical design
    –Spell out the operational procedures used to test the hypotheses
    –Be specific
        –Data or sample
        –Operationalization of variables
        –Analytical procedures
        –Pilot studies
        –Reliability and validity of measures
–Results
    –Summarize, without judgment, the results of the hypothesis tests
    –Tabular displays
    –Clearly state the result of each test
    –Report all findings, not just those that support your hypotheses
    –What if the analysis doesn’t support your hypothesis?
        –Nothing ever turns out exactly as you expected
        –Sometimes, counterintuitive results are the most interesting
        –The trick is using the literature to explain them and using them to build theory
        –A rejected hypotheses makes its contribution to the field by closing off ultimately dead-end research direction
        –Look at measurement, analysis and design issues
        –Do a "full-scale inquiry" into the theoretical causes of the outcome
–Discussion
    –What do the results mean?
    –Which results support the hypotheses?
    –Explanations for results counter to hypotheses
    –Implications, in terms of the purpose of the research
    –Limitations of the research
    –Generalizability
    –Suggestions for future research
–Conclusions

Moving from zero draft into first draft
–"First you make a mess, then you clean it up"
–Begin by saying what comes to your mind
    –Stronger, more imaginative writing
    –Control your worry
    –A sketch, not a finished oil painting
–Make comments to yourself in the text
–Zero draft: the point where it becomes possible to discern a shape to your material
–First draft: a complete, although very imperfect, version of what you’re ultimately going to say
    –More form, different feel than zero draft
    –Piece or writing from which you can extract some sort of coherent outline
–Build or flesh out ideas you have already put down in writing
–Try to take reader’s perspective; ask yourself questions
–Ask as your own reviewer
–Experiment with different ways to organize your work
–To strengthen your point, remember that less is more.
–Try reading your work aloud, to catch awkward phrasing and redundancies
–Use your breath – if you can’t read a sentence aloud without turning blue, it either needs more than one sentence
–Watch out for writing quirks, such as overusing particular words or punctuation marks
–Don’t use complex language or jargon when simple words will make your point equally well
–Avoid computerese
–At some point, be able to stop fiddling with it and send it off

Revision strategies
–Don’t take reviews too personally
–Carefully consider each suggestion
–Provide a detailed, point-by-point list of how each suggestion was addressed (detailed, but brief)
–Okay to choose not to take every suggestion – explain why
–Say what you have to say in the paper, not in your list

分类:随手摘录