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许巍

2007年05月31日 发表评论

收到一个朋友的短信,说在高速公路的车上听许巍的歌,就想起你了,问候一声。谢谢!

http://www.6rooms.com/p//nQnj6YCIbD4lhFiCu7xiA

分类: 心情记录

购书

2007年05月31日 1条评论

最近似乎患了“不能写作症”,一写东西就头疼。贴个新购书目录:

钱德勒:管理的历史与现状
王阳明:传习录
吴晓波:大败局(II)
吴晓波:大败局(修订本)
哈耶克:哈耶克文选
毕淑敏:女心理师(上)
大仲马:基督山伯爵(上下册)【买给雨晨的儿童节礼物,她说要看长的复杂一些的东西,呵呵。】

分类: 阅读笔记

钱德勒去世

2007年05月24日 1条评论

国内媒体对此的报道似乎极少…

HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PROFESSOR ALFRED D. CHANDLER, JR., PREEMINENT BUSINESS HISTORIAN, DEAD AT 88

Alfred D. Chandler, Jr.

Alfred D. Chandler, Jr.
Photo: Stuart Cahill

BOSTON – Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., the renowned Pulitzer Prize-winning Harvard Business School historian whose greatest accomplishment, according to HBS professor emeritus Thomas K. McCraw, was to “establish business history as an independent and important area for study,” died on Wednesday, May 9, at Youville Hospital in Cambridge, Mass., at the age of 88. In his long and legendary career, he chronicled and analyzed big businesses around the globe in a prolific and extraordinarily influential corpus of books and articles. At the time of his death, he was the School’s Isidor Straus Professor of Business History Emeritus.
Like no one before him, Chandler, who in the 1950s helped Alfred P. Sloan, the creator of the modern General Motors when it was an industrial colossus, write his famous autobiography My Years with General Motors, investigated the dynamic factors that made the American economy and its businesses succeed so triumphantly in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The key factors, as Chandler saw them, were the rise of the railroad, concentrated urban markets, mass production techniques, electrification, the internal combustion engine, and research and development.
He concluded that successful industrial corporations intelligently harnessed and exploited these forces and made the transition from entrepreneurial enterprises to multidivisional, vertically integrated companies. In essence, the creation and development of modern managerial capitalism was the driver of American business success. “What counts are people – their skills, knowledge and experience,” he said.

Alfred D. Chandler, Jr.

Alfred D. Chandler, Jr.
Photo: Richard Chase

Chandler’s landmark books and articles influenced generations of scholars in many countries and numerous disciplines, including history, economics, sociology, and management science. While his central ideas about industrial change emerged and evolved in each work, he always examined the same basic set of questions: How were things done at a certain time, how were they done later, and what happened to cause the change.
“Al Chandler revolutionized the field of business history and nurtured it at this School with the help of outstanding colleagues who worked closely with him and admired him as a mentor and friend,” said Jay Light, Dean of Harvard Business School. “Through his teaching and research and the comprehensive collection of papers he donated to our library’s historical collections, he has left a lasting mark on scholars and students at HBS and far beyond.”
In Strategy and Structure, published in 1962, Chandler examined four U.S. industrial giants from the 1900s to the 1940s, focusing on the executives who devised the decentralized, multidivisional structure of the large corporation. Through a detailed study of General Motors, DuPont, Exxon, and Sears, Roebuck & Company, he showed that organizational structure is a direct result of strategy. The book helped spawn the field of corporate strategy and made the maxim “strategy precedes structure” a staple of corporate management during the 1960s and 1970s. According to his longtime friend and colleague, HBS historian Thomas K. McCraw, who succeeded Chandler as Straus Professor, “that insight constituted a redefinition of the entire field.”
In The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business, which won the Pulitzer Prize in history in 1978 as well as the prestigious Newcomen Award and Bancroft Prize, Chandler argued that the visible hand of management had replaced, in Adam Smith’s words, the invisible hand of market forces in coordinating and allocating the resources of the economy as a result of the coming of the railroads and the telegraph in the 1800s. Although there was little need for middle managers prior to 1840, Chandler concluded, by the mid-twentieth century, the multiunit, multifunctional enterprise administered by salaried managers had become the “most powerful institution in the American economy.”
In another important work, Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of American Capitalism, published in 1990 and winner of an American Association of Publishers Award and the University of Chicago’s Melamed Prize, Chandler took on a more global view. He compared in extraordinary detail the evolution of managerial capitalism in the United States, England, and Germany by examining the 200 largest corporations in those countries. According to his findings, “the first movers in capital-intensive industries kept their competitive advantage only if they made three key strategic investments: first, in large-scale, high-speed production; second, in distribution; and, third, in a management structure that could plan, coordinate, and monitor the company’s vast operations.”
Chandler continued to do research and write until the very end of his life. In 2001, he wrote Inventing the Electronic Century: The Epic Story of the Consumer Electronics and Computer Industry, which focused on the fall of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and the rise of Sony and Matsushita, as Japan conquered the worldwide consumer electronics market. That volume was followed in 2005 by Shaping the Industrial Century: The Remarkable Story of the Evolution of the Modern Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries. “Such science-based industries have had as much impact on this country in the twentieth century as railroads did in the last one,” he observed. At the time of his death, he was writing a biography of his maternal grandfather, Major William G. Ramsay, the first chief engineer of the E. I. DuPont de Nemours chemical company, who helped transform that firm from a family company into a global corporation.
Chandler pursued his scholarship with single-minded determination, energy, and passion, making the most of his exceptional ability to analyze comparatively an immense number of facts and figures. “I became committed early in life to the historian’s approach of moving through time longitudinally,” Chandler once said.
“Al Chandler was an extraordinary scholar whose research and publications over five decades exercised a transformational effect far beyond his own discipline in business history,” said Geoffrey G. Jones, the current Straus Professor of Business History. “Although he began his career as a traditional historian who labored long and hard in archives, his resulting insights on the growth of firms and the emergence of modern management were so compelling that he became a major formative influence on many areas of management studies. Al never departed from his central concern to document and understand the history of firms and managers in driving innovation and creating wealth.”
Writing in his 1988 book The Essential Alfred Chandler: Essays toward a Historical Theory of Big Business, Professor McCraw also caught the essence of a man who was universally regarded not only as a true academic giant but as a true gentleman. “Chandler’s most striking trait, in all his personal relations, remains a pronounced lack of pretentiousness. From the beginning of his career, his primary motivation has been an abiding and sometimes obsessive intellectual curiosity. Even after [many decades] as a working historian, he retains a youthful excitability, an infectious enthusiasm about the latest item he has read or piece of evidence he has uncovered. The fires of research have never been banked in Alfred Chandler; and in Scale and Scope, as in Strategy and Structure and The Visible Hand, they light up a landscape that had been only dimly perceived, if at all.”
Alfred DuPont Chandler, Jr., was born in Guyencourt, Delaware, near Wilmington, on September 15, 1918. (Although he was not a blood relation of the DuPonts who had founded the well-known chemical company, his middle name reflected longstanding connections with this prominent family. Beyond Major Ramsay’s important role in the company, Chandler’s paternal great-grandmother was raised by the DuPonts after her parents died of yellow fever when she was a child.)
Chandler spent the first five years of his life in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where his father was working as the representative of an American locomotive company. The family then moved back to Philadelphia and by the time Chandler was 11, they were living in the countryside outside of Wilmington.
According to family lore, Chandler announced his decision to become a historian by the age of seven, inspired by his reading of Wilbur Fisk Gordy’s Elementary History of the United States, a primer designed for sixth graders that had been given to him by his father. He read it from cover to cover nineteen times.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the education of Alfred Chandler continued on board the schooner Blue Dolphin, which embarked on a year-long family excursion, organized by his parents and grandmother for “Alfie” and his four siblings. The vessel island hopped through the Antilles, exploring caves that had once been occupied by the pirate Bluebeard, passed through the Panama Canal, and sailed along the route of Charles Darwin to the Galapagos. Then 15, young Chandler was enthralled.
After returning from this unique adventure, he went off to Phillips Exeter Academy, winning a prize for excellence in history before entering Harvard College, where generations of his family had studied from the eighteenth century on. He received his bachelor’s degree, magna cum laude, in 1940.
Like his classmate John F. Kennedy (a fellow member of the Harvard sailing team as well), Chandler became an officer in the United States Navy during World War II, interpreting aerial reconnaissance photographs of German and Japanese territory taken before, during and after bombing raids. According to Professor McCraw, this assignment left a lasting impression on the aspiring historian, who would later examine the significance of logistics, industrial production, and change in national economies. After the war, Chandler turned his sights on graduate work, enrolling in a program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Having written a 186-page honors thesis at Harvard College on the gubernatorial election of 1876 in South Carolina, he intended to study southern history.
At Chapel Hill, however, Chandler came under the influence of two prominent sociologists and decided that the study of regional history was not where his future should lie. After a year, he returned to Harvard to continue his graduate work under the great Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons, who, McCraw explains, “introduced him to the work of Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, and the entire tradition of historical sociology. [This experience] guided [Chandler] toward the broad, systemic generalizations that characterized his work and which the sub-discipline of business history so badly needed.”
Chandler also found himself in a study group with other history graduate students who set the bar very high in terms of standards and expectations. “Chandler was now in very fast company and [knew he] had better work as hard as he could to survive the competition,” writes McCraw. Finally, Chandler was influenced by his participation in Harvard’s Research Center in Entrepreneurial History, launched by the economist Joseph Schumpeter and the economic historian and Harvard Business School librarian Arthur Cole. Once again, Chandler found himself working with and learning from a superb group of historians, sociologists, and economists.
In search of a topic for his doctoral dissertation, Chandler made a fortuitous discovery that would establish his life’s work and ultimately shape the course of business history. He literally stumbled upon the papers of his great-grandfather, Henry Varnum Poor, a founder of Standard & Poor’s Corporation and a well-known nineteenth-century railroad analyst, while cleaning out a storeroom in his great-aunt Lucy Poor’s home in nearby Brookline. Henry Varnum Poor had sketched the histories of more than 100 early American railroad companies and the systems of finance that funded their growth, and his papers were a treasure trove of firsthand accounts of the crucial role railroads played in the development of modern business practices. These materials became the basis of Chandler’s doctoral dissertation, which evolved into a book, Henry Varnum Poor: Business Editor, Analyst and Reformer.
The volume represented nothing less than a comparative history of the great American railroad corporations during their formative years, according to McCraw, and initiated a pattern of research that would remain Chandler’s hallmark — absorbing prodigious amounts of diffuse data, including company histories, corporate archives, annual reports, trade publications and business memoirs and organizing them into coherent patterns of interpretation.
After earning his master’s degree in 1947 and his Ph.D. in 1952, Chandler taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1950 to 1963 (except for a semester’s leave in 1954 to teach at the Naval War College in Newport, RI). At MIT, besides writing Strategy and Structure, he helped edit four volumes of Theodore Roosevelt’s letters. In the division of editorial labor, he took responsibility for the economic issues of the Roosevelt era and because of his own interest in hunting, for Roosevelt’s time in Africa.
In 1963, Chandler was asked to join the faculty of the Johns Hopkins University, where he chaired the history department and edited the papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower, who had just completed his second term as president of the United States.
After seven years in Baltimore, however, Chandler felt he needed more time to pursue his own research interests. He was even prepared to leave academia to begin work on The Visible Hand, when the then HBS Dean, Lawrence Fouraker, invited him to join the Business School faculty in 1970.
As a member of the active HBS faculty from 1970 to 1989, Chandler not only conducted some of his most important research, but he also made business history one of the School’s most prominent and popular areas, attracting and nurturing a group of younger world-class business historians and with them creating an enormously successful elective in business history that attracted hundreds of students.
In addition to his teaching, course development, and research, Chandler was also editor of Harvard Studies in Business History and on the editorial boards of major historical journals. He served as president of the Economic History Association and the Business History Conference. He was on the council of the Massachusetts Historical Society, which honored him in 2003 with its highest award, the John F. Kennedy Medal, and on the executive board of the Organization of American Historians.
Chandler was a visiting fellow at All Souls College, Oxford; a visiting professor at the European Institute of Washington; and a Guggenheim Fellow from 1958-59. He was also a member of the American Philosophical Society and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. For many years he served as a director of Landmark Communications Inc., the creator of the Weather Channel.
Chandler received numerous honorary degrees from universities around the world, including Harvard, which honored him in 1995.
Usually dressed in a tweed jacket and gray slacks and with a shock of white hair, Chandler was easily recognizable on the HBS campus. Long after his retirement, he continued to attend the School’s Business History Seminars, which brought together historians from HBS, Harvard’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences, MIT, and other universities in Boston.
When he wasn’t working, however, Chandler liked nothing better than to socialize. Each fall, for instance, he and his wife, Fay Martin Chandler, an accomplished artist whom he married in 1944, hosted a Head of the Charles Regatta party in their apartment, which offered a spectacular view of the Charles River and the boat races below. Lunch at home was always preceded by a glass of sherry before Chandler returned to his work on a desk cluttered with papers and books – but without a computer in sight. He wrote all his work on yellow lined paper in a small, cramped handwriting, then dictated it for transcription by an HBS assistant who worked with him for decades.
Summers were spent at the family home in Nantucket, Mass., where he brought his work but took time out for surf casting for bluefish and a run (and later in his life, a walk) on the beach. And no matter how cold it got each winter, he enjoyed duck hunting in Rowley, Mass., near the home of his son Alfred III. Indeed, he was fond of saying that although history was his vocation, hunting was his avocation.
In addition to his wife and son Alfred, Chandler is survived by two daughters, Alpine “Dougie” Chandler Bird of Annapolis, MD, and Mary “Mimi” Chandler Watt of Dinas Powys, Wales; a younger son, Howard, of Maharishi Vedic City, IA; two sisters, Nina Murray of Bedford, Mass., and Nantucket, and Sophie Consagra of New York City; five grandchildren and two step-grandchildren; and one great grandchild.
Burial will be private. A memorial service will be held at the Memorial Church in Harvard Yard on Sept. 28, 2007.
In lieu of flowers, contributions can be made in Chandler’s memory to any of the following:

  • The Alfred D. Chandler Fund, c/o Kerry Cietanno, Teele Hall, Harvard Business School, Boston, MA 02163;
  • The Memorial Church, Harvard University, One Harvard Yard, Cambridge, MA 02138;
  • The Massachusetts Audubon Society, c/o Betsy Watson, 208 South Great Rd., Lincoln, MA 01773.
分类: 随手摘录

时光

2007年05月17日 1条评论

去年的今天,和SISI、ZENG及其GF一起去听许巍“绝版青春”演唱会。现场的那种震颤内心的感受还真切地留存着,而一年的时光已经过去了。那个时候,憧憬着自我许诺着毕业后的轻松时光;而现在,感觉到的却是比读书时繁琐的多的忙乱。计划着回去看看,但总是被临时的事情打乱——这不,原计划下周去西安的计划可能由于研究生论文答辩而再度搁浅。

http://www.6rooms.com/p/VScE72M_l/CsJRWh4E4VmQ

西安演唱会剪辑花絮

分类: 心情记录

何毓琦:一个大学教授在美国的生活

2007年05月13日 发表评论

何毓琦:一个大学教授在美国的生活

黄金法则一:尽早建立你的国际学术声誉。

黄金法则二:擅长写作和演讲,了解什么是最前沿的课题。

黄金法则一和黄金法则二意味着你必须让全世界知道你是谁。怎么才能做到这一点呢?在优秀的学术期刊上发表文章,在学术会议上好好介绍你的研究。很多科学家以为搞科研是最最重要的,相比之下,写论文和做报告不那么重要。但是实际上,除非你提出了相对论或者搞定了人类基因图谱,你的研究要跟成千上万和你一样聪明的人竞争。实际上,我个人认为,有个好想法,写篇好文章和给个好报告是三项独立的而且同等重要的工作。每一项工作要付出的艰苦努力都是完全不同的。要想做个好报告,仅仅从论文里复制拷贝制作一套PPT是远远不够的,对着论文照本宣科也是远远不够的。我们经常看到一些本来才华横溢的科学家做的报告惨不忍睹,令人不忍卒听。实际上,一个好的报告应该能够让一般听众听懂,同时又给专家同行留下非常深刻的印象。统计数据表明,一篇普通的发表了的科技论文的读者只有5位,其中还包括了论文的编辑和审稿人。但是,一次优秀的讲座的听众可能多达数十人、数百人甚至数千人。大多数听众一个月后大概都不记得你讲座的具体内容了,但是多年以后他们可能还会记得,你的那次讲座非常成功。这种针对听众的讲座能给你带来许多意想不到的好处。目前,各种政府基金管理机构的官员参加大大小小的会议,主要就是为了了解最热门的研究领域,发现那些值得资助的人。你给报告的时候他们很可能就坐在听众中间。那么,让你的报告清晰易懂的重要性就显而易见了。然而,我还是不断地碰到很多研究出色的科学家在做报告的时候完全无视听众的存在,报告晦涩难懂,让人觉得他非常傲慢无礼。我年轻的时候,如果听不懂别人的报告,就怪自己无知;现在,如果我听不懂一个人在说些什么,我就怪那个作报告的人。让报告清楚明白、不浪费我的时间是他的责任。我的座右铭是“完全可以让任何人在任何特定时间内适当地明白任何事情。”

更多阅读

何毓琦科学网博客

《一位外籍院士致信宋健:中国学术失范的原因及实例》

何毓琦:人生最大的快乐是能做喜欢做的事

崔琦、何毓琦教授 接受中国科学院外籍院士证书

分类: 随手摘录

仿真研究中的数据处理和分析

2007年05月10日 1条评论

仿真研究中的数据处理和分析,包括两个方面:一是对仿真模型有关参数的标定;二是对仿真结果的统计分析。仿真模型的参数,如果不能直接测量或者从统计报表、年鉴获取,则需要收集相关的样本数据以对其进行推断和检验。仿真结果的分析,大致和经验研究中的数据处理方法类似,重点是通过统计分析,检验仿真结果是否与假设的或预期的结论一致。前者需要收集和整理数据,而后者则直接对仿真输出的数据进行分析。

分类: 学术论文

肖知兴:被批评的商学院

2007年05月7日 发表评论

肖知兴:被批评的商学院。摘录两段:

关于研究型商学院中教学与科研之间的冲突:

研究型学校为什么不能与实践联系得更密切一些,研究与教学并重呢?这话说起来容易,做起来难。INSEAD最初是教学型学校,自1989年设立博士项目起来,逐渐重视研究,在专业学术刊物上发表文章成为教授评价的最重要的标准。结果是教授队伍里逐渐形成了以研究为核心和以教学为核心两种针锋相对的文化,两种文化冲突之剧烈,有时候甚至到了外人无法想象的程度。教学型教授嘲笑研究型教授的研究项目琐碎、无聊,纯属浪费生命,大多数论文印出来没有人看,甚至连印刷这些论文的纸张的价值都不如:“99%的论文如果没有发表,这个世界的运转方式不会有任何不同”。研究型教授则嘲笑教学型教授不懂文献,不讲逻辑,张口即错,完全是误人子弟。我亲身经历的一次是一个教书很好的年轻教授以《不受欢迎的文化》做一个午间讲座。题目刚写下,就遭到学校的著名学术权威对这个题目的质疑:文化的定义就决定了文化是为人们所普遍接受的价值观和预设,什么叫“不受欢迎的文化”?一个多小时的讲座,光为这个题目就辩论了三四十分钟。研究和教学都好的教授自然也有,但绝对属于可遇不可求的情况。普遍的共识是,教学与研究几乎是两个完全不相干的行当,同时做好这两种工作,要求教授具有一种几乎类似双重人格一样的多维度能力,确实不易。

关于毕业生流向与商学院的研究型化趋向:

从学生的角度看,大家进商学院,名正言顺的目的是上学,学东西,但大家心照不宣的目的还有两个:扩大朋友圈子、提升社会地位。商学院这种社会学意义上的功能的最好体现是毕业生两大去向:投资银行与咨询公司。因为这两个行业提供的服务的特征,加入这些行业的年轻人往往拥有很多与工商界的高层打交道的机会。这种机会自然会为这些行业的年轻人的职业发展提供了不可多得的优势:与同龄人相比,他们往往能够更快、更早地挤身工商界的核心圈。典型的例子是哈佛商学院毕业生郭士纳从麦肯锡到America Express,到 Nabisco, 再到IBM的职业发展过程。一两年时间、几万美元的学费换来这种在竞争激烈的职场中实现蛙跳的机会,自然非常值得。如果商学院的背景能够帮助他们实现这个蛙跳,他们在商学院学了什么的知识与能力,是否树立了正确的人生观与价值观,倒成了第二位的问题了。所以,对于学生而言,最重要的是商学院的地位以及录取比例的悬殊,而不是学习的内容。商学院的地位,又来源于商学院之间的竞争。商学院靠什么竞争?自然离不开教学与科研。而与科研相比,教学因为缺乏统一的标准,流通性又较差,出头彩的难度要大一些。这个出人头地的重任,就自然而然地要靠科研来担任了。所以,不管大师们怎么批评,如果商学院的毕业生主要流向是投资银行界和咨询界,而不是工业界,我估计,研究型商学院片面强调学术研究的总体方向在短时间内是很难发生什么根本的变化的。

分类: 随手摘录

股市狂潮

2007年05月3日 1条评论

近期股市会不会大跌?如果下跌,会跌多久?

在当前的牛市氛围中,做出获利离场的决定实在太难了。

Economist.com: The people’s republic in the grip of popular capitalism

《财经》杂志:英《经济学家》评中国股市狂潮


罗半仙的漫画

分类: 感想杂记
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